As we celebrate the 151st birthday of our national hero, Andres Bonifacio, let’s find out more about this most famous Katipunero.
B – orn on November 30, 1863, Andres Bonifacio was the eldest son of Santiago Bonifacio and Catalina Castro. At a young age, he assumed the responsibility of raising his siblings, Ciriaco, Procopio, Troadio, Esperidiona and Maxima. To support their needs, he sold crafts like bamboo canes, paper fans and posters on the streets. He also worked as a messenger and warehouse keeper for two foreign firms, Fleming & Co. and Fressel & Co. He was known as a hardworking man who still managed to look neat, and for always carrying an umbrella regardless of the weather condition.
O – riang, also known as Gregoria de Jesus, became a big part of Bonifacio’s life. She was his second wife after his first wife, Monica, died of leprosy. Love sprung between the two, which led to their marriage carried out with both Catholic and Katipunan rites. Oriang, a fearless woman, also joined the Katipunan and chose “Lakambini” as her symbolic name.
N – ationalism ran in Bonifacio’s blood as seen in his notable writings. Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa and Ang Dapat Mabatid ng mga Tagalog were some of his works published in the Katipunan’s organ, Kalayaan. Using his pseudonym Agapito Bagumbayan, he used the initials “A.I.B” in some of his works. Below are some lines from Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa:
Sa pagkadalisay at pagkadakila
Gaya ng pagibig sa tinubuang lupa?
Alin pagibig pa? Wala na nga, wala.
Ulit ulitin mang basahin ng isip
At isa-isahing talastasing pilit
Ang salita’t buhay na limbag at titik
Ng isang katauhan ito’y namamasid
Banal na pagibig pag ikaw ang nukal
Sa tapat na puso ng sino’t alinman
Imbit taong gubat, maralita’t mangmang
Nagiging dakila at iginagalang.
I – njustice urged Bonifacio to fight for Philippine freedom. At an early age, he experienced hardships. While supporting his siblings, he widened his knowledge by reading books that influenced his thoughts and views about freedom. He also admired Jose Rizal’s courage in exposing the Spaniards’ abusive governance through his novels. Bonifacio even attended the founding of the La Liga Filipina headed by Rizal. Some of its objectives were to unite the country, protect every Filipino’s needs, and defend Filipinos against all violence.
F – ather of Philippine Revolution, that’s how Bonifacio was recognized in our history. He became the Supremo of the Katipunan, which was founded in Tondo, Manila on July 7, 1892. The Katipunan was a secret revolutionary organization that aimed to attain liberty. Bonifacio led the attacks against the Spanish forces to fight against the injustice and achieve the separation of the Philippines from foreign control.
A – cta de Tejeros is a document signed by Andres Bonifacio to express his disgust for the Tejeros Convention, wherein Bonifacio’s credibility as the Director of Interior was challenged when Daniel Tirona protested against him. Tirona, in his belief that Bonifacio lacked credentials and was unfit to lead the revolutionary government, proposed that a lawyer named Jose del Rosario to take the position.
C – aloocan City became the place for Bonifacio’s tribute, his monument. A committee held a contest for the design and construction of the monument. After a thorough deliberation, an entry of Guillermo Tolentino bagged the first prize. Made with granite and bronze, the Bonifacio monument was completed and inaugurated on November 30, 1933. Before this landmark was called Monumento, it was known as Kalaanan.
I – ndependence that we enjoy today is one of the things that we’ve inherited from our heroes like Andres Bonifacio. He deserves to be remembered for his valor in putting a stop to Spanish sovereignty and for his undying love for his country.
O – n May 10, 1897, Andres and his brother Procopio were killed at Mount Nagpatong in Maragondon, Cavite. Along with the Bonifacio Shrine, the Bonifacio Trial House can also be found in Maragondon. The National Historical Commission of the Philippines (NHCP) has recently opened the Museo ng Paglilitis ni Andres Bonifacio last November 28, 2014. Aside from the historical displays, the museum also has an e-learning facility for students to learn more about our heroes.
National Heritage Commission of the Philippines (NHCP)
National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA)
Christmas is a season of love and happiness— the time of year filled with joyful melodies, countless parties and family reunions.
However, this is also the season of fire hazards, which come in the form of lavish displays that make use of substandard Christmas lights.
Last year, the Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP) documented a total of 1,079 fire incidents during the “ber” months in National Capital Region alone and 4,029 fire cases in the whole country. Based on the data, most of the fire incidents happened during the month of December.
That’s why this Yuletide Season, it’s important to prioritize your family’s safety with these tips:
Look for the ICC mark. When buying decorations such as Christmas lights and lanterns, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) suggests buying only those with ICC marks, which are printed on stickers. The ICC or the Import Commodity Clearance is obtained through the Product Certification Scheme of the Bureau of Product Standard (BPS) under the governance of DTI. ICC marks validate that the products have met the requirements of the Philippine National Standard (PNS) specified by the BPS.
ICC marks must bear the unique serial number of the product shipment and the name of its manufacturer or importer. This way, you can easily trace the product’s source.
For consumer complaints and queries, call DTI Direct at 7513330 or 0917-8343330.
Inspect your Christmas lights thoroughly before use. Check the cord and plug for any damage. If you plan to use your old Christmas lights, watch out for exposed live wires, melting or opening in the lamp holders, and loosely screwed light bulbs.
Read the instructions carefully. Make sure you follow voltage requirements and warnings such as the following: For indoor use only; Disconnect from supply before removing or inserting any lamp; Do not overload electrical outlets; and Avoid damage to insulation. Do not attach more than the recommended sets of Christmas lights. Normally, only three sets are allowed to avoid overloading.
Keep lights away from combustible materials. If you’re buying ordinary Christmas lights sans safety features, the BFP says its best to keep them away from curtains and other flammable items. The bulbs of this type of Christmas lights easily overheat, which may cause fire. It also helps to position appliances such as your television, computer, sound system and heating devices like your microwave oven in a spacious area to prevent overheating.
Let your lights cool down. Avoid leaving Christmas lights turned on overnight to avoid overheating. This will also help keep your electricity bill from ballooning.
Follow the safety rules. Never place electrical cords under a carpet to prevent someone from stepping on them. Unplug appliances by grasping the plug, not by yanking the cord, to prevent damage. Do not leave infants or children near electrical outlets. Their curiosity may lead to accidents, including fire.
Aside from safety, health is also important to keep in mind this festive season. At this time, social gatherings are inevitable, as well as indulging in food and drink.
Data gathered from the 2006 Philippine Health Statistics showed that Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) are among the leading causes of death in the country. Cardiovascular disease, cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and diabetes mellitus are the four major NCDs acquired through an unhealthy lifestyle.
According to the National Nutrition Survey conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute, hypertension cases have increased to 25% from 22% from 2003 to 2008, with diabetic cases increasing from 3.4% to 4.8% The study also revealed an increase in the consumption of food high in fats and sugars and the lack of physical activity among the entire adult population.
To ensure that we enjoy a disease-free Christmas, the Department of Health (DOH) reminds us to take note of the following:
Prepare early. Overfatigue and stress due to rushing and preparing for the holidays may cause health complications such as heart disease and hypertension. Get enough sleep so that the mind and body can rest.
Give safe and age-appropriate toys to children. Choose toys without small and sharp parts, which may cause choking and injury among children. Read and follow instructions carefully.
Prepare well-balanced holiday meals. Aside from rich holiday foods such as ham, lechon, queso de bola and sweets, make sure that your dining table is also loaded with fruits and vegetables. Ensure cleanliness and freshness of foods to avoid food poisoning.
Eat healthy. Eat nutritious foods to sustain your daily activities. Salty and fatty foods are prevalent this season so remember to only eat them on moderation.
Drink plenty of liquids, such as water and fruit juices, to facilitate excretion.
Avoid too much alcohol. Do not drink and drive; we all know how drunk driving results to vehicular accidents. Too much alcohol can cause serious damage to the liver and heart, and may induce strokes.
Guard yourself against sickness. During this season, we’re more susceptible to coughs, colds, and fever. If these symptoms persist for more than five days, consult your doctor.
Greeting everyone a Merry Christmas has become a standard this season, but to truly achieve merriment, remember that health and safety should come first. Here’s to a fire-free, heart-healthy Christmas to everyone!
Sources: BFP | DOH | DTI
The cloud cluster spotted yesterday morning has developed into a low pressure area (LPA). It has already entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) and was estimated at 880 kilometers east of Mindanao this 4:00 AM.
PAGASA Weather Forecaster Glaiza Escullar said the LPA has a slim chance of developing into a tropical cyclone. However, it is expected to move towards Eastern Visayas, traverse the areas of Visayas region until it reaches Palawan. The weather bureau continues to monitor the said weather disturbance.
Meanwhile, the easterlies characterized by warm and humid air coming from the Pacific, will bring partly cloudy to cloudy skies with isolated rain showers or thunderstorms mostly over the eastern section.
On the other hand, the northeast monsoon or amihan has slightly weakened. Coastal waters over Northern Luzon will be moderate to rough while the rest of the country will experience slight to moderate seas.
Special Non-working day in Maragusan
Pursuant to Proclamation No. 908, today was declared as a special non working day in Maragusan, Compostella Valley, This is to give the people an opportunity to participate with the activities in line with the Foundation Day Anniversary of the municipality.
Meteorology covers a wide variety of terminology that we often hear, but seldom understand and remember. Check out these weather words and be in the know!
Climate is the general weather pattern in a specific area that involves temperature, humidity, rainfall, air pressure and other meteorological variables over a long period of time. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), some scientists define climate as the average weather condition based on 30 years of observation.
It is important to study climate as it plays a big role in our lives. Rising global temperatures can cause sea levels to rise or affect precipitation over a specific region, human health and various ecosystems. Climate change is one of our generation’s major concerns.
Season refers to the time of the year caused by the tilting of the Earth. The Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) says it is the division of the year based on the recurring astronomical or climatic phenomenon.
However, the location of an area, whether it is in the northern or southern hemisphere, affects its seasons. Other regions have complete seasons: winter, spring, summer and fall. Philippines, being a tropical country, has two official seasons – wet and dry. The wet season usually starts in June as the southwest monsoon or habagat prevails. Rainfall during this season is concentrated over the western sections of the country.
Meanwhile, dry season normally starts in March when warm and humid weather is experienced. Though the scorching heat is felt over all the country, PAGASA clarifies that the term “summer” is not applicable to the Philippines. Meteorologically, we only have the wet and dry seasons.
The convergence of winds coming from the northern and southern hemispheres results to group of convective clouds known as the ITCZ or Intertropical Convergence Zone. This weather system affects the country depending on the orientation of the sun or the season. Once it becomes active, it can be a breeding ground of weather disturbances or low pressure areas.
Aside from tropical cyclones, ITCZ is one of the weather systems that cause flooding and landslides because it triggers moderate to heavy precipitation over the affected areas.
PAR means Philippine Area of Responsibility, an area in the Northwest Pacific, where PAGASA monitors tropical cyclones that are expected to affect the country. Once a tropical cyclone enters PAR, it is automatically given a local name so Filipinos can easily remember it.
With a measurement of more than 4 million square kilometres, PAR covers the West Philippine Sea, Bashi Channel over the north, part of the Pacific Ocean in the east and Sulu and Celebes Seas in the south.
One must remember that the Philippine Area of Responsibility is different from the country itself. When we say a tropical cyclone is entering the PAR, it doesn’t mean that it will hit the Philippine landmass. It may still change its course or re-curve away from the country.
Filipinos often hear the southwest monsoon or habagat during the rainy season. Characterized by warm and moist air, it speeds up cloud formation, which dumps rains mostly over the western section of the country.
Once a habagat is enhanced by a tropical cyclone entering PAR, it can bring heavy downpour that may cause widespread flooding.
During the passage of “Ondoy” last 2009 and “Maring” in 2013, habagat brought enormous amounts to Luzon, which led to serious flooding.
After habagat comes the northeast monsoon or amihan, a wind system characterized by cold and dry air coming from Mainland China. It normally starts to prevail during mid-October just like this year, when its onset was officially declared by PAGASA on October 16, 2014.
Amihan is responsible for colder mornings and lower temperatures during the “ber” months. It also affects sea conditions and may direct tropical cyclones towards the Philippine landmass with a higher chance of landfall.
PAGASA issues thunderstorm warnings everyday mostly in the afternoon or evening. A thunderstorm is a weather disturbance that produces rains, gusty winds, lightning and thunder.
Thunderstorm formation occurs through water cycle, wherein heat serves as the main component. As the sun heats up the land or a body of water, warm air rises, producing clouds by means of condensation. Once the cloud becomes massive, precipitation follows in the form of rain, drizzle or hail.
Along with gusty winds and moderate to heavy rains, thunder and lightning also occur during a thunderstorm. Lightning is caused by the connection of the positive charges at the top of the cloud and the negative charges formed at the bottom. Due to lightning, thunder is produced by vibration of air particles.
Flooding in low lying areas is expected during thunderstorms.
8. TROPICAL CYCLONE
Tropical cyclone is the general term for a “bagyo,” which starts out from a cloud cluster that develops into a low pressure area (LPA), an area that has an atmospheric pressure lower than its surrounding locations.
A tropical cyclone is classified into three: Tropical Depression, Tropical Storm and Typhoon. Each of these is measured by its maximum wind speeds and not by its amount of rainfall. An average of 19 to 21 tropical cyclones enter PAR each year.
Landfall happens when the surface of a tropical cyclone intersects with a coastline. In this scenario, the landmass or the affected area will experience stormy weather with moderate to heavy rains and gusty winds. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), it is possible for a cyclone’s strongest winds to be experienced over land even if landfall does not occur. In some instances, its strongest winds could also remain over the water even if it made its landfall.
Tropical cyclones can have a series of landfalls like what happened to Typhoon Yolanda wherein 6 landfall activities were recorded on the 8th of November 2013.
10. STORM SURGE
Storm surge is the abnormal rise in sea level associated with a tropical storm or typhoon. It is usually measured by deducting the normal high tide from the observed storm tide.
This event is never related to tsunami, which is a sea level rise brought by a strong earthquake. A tsunami is triggered by underwater seismic activities while a storm surge is generated by strong winds from a storm.
Sources: PAGASA-DOST, NOAA, NASA
PAGASA is currently monitoring a new cloud cluster east of Mindanao, outside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR). State weather forecaster Buddy Javier says it has a possibility of developing into a Low Pressure Area within 48 hours. Easterlies still prevail over the eastern section of Mindanao, bringing possible thunderstorms late in the afternoon or evening.
Meanwhile, the Bicol Region and Samar province will experience light to moderate rain showers due to the tail-end of a cold front affecting Southern Luzon. Metro Manila and the remaining part of the country will experience fair weather .
Good news to our fishermen: no gale warning has been issued today. Sea travel is safe in all seaboards in the following hours.
DECEMBER: WHAT TO EXPECT
As we’re down to the last week of November, here’s a sneak preview of what to expect, weather-wise, this December.
The northeast monsoon or hanging amihan will continue to bring lower temperatures, especially in the northern regions of the country.
With this, the formation of a tail-end of a cold front is generally possible in the eastern section of Luzon as the easterlies prevail over the eastern section of Visayas and Mindanao. When it comes to tropical cyclones, an average of 1 to 2 is expected to enter PAR.
Be informed. Get the latest weather updates on PanahonTV’s social media accounts.
Two weather systems prevail over the country today–the tail-end of a cold front and the northeast monsoon.
Rains are expected over Western and Central Visayas, and the provinces of Aurora, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, Catanduanes and Sorsogon due to the tail-end of a cold front. This weather system is the front boundary of two air masses, which causes precipitation.
On the other hand, the northeast monsoon or amihan continues to bring lower temperatures and isolated light rains in the regions of Cagayan Valley, Cordillera and Ilocos. The rest of the country, including Metro Manila, will have partly cloudy to cloudy skies with isolated rain showers or thunderstorms today.
PAGASA weather forecaster Alvin Pura says that so far, there is no monitored weather disturbance inside or outside the Philippine Area of Responsibility.
Meanwhile, rough to very rough sea condition is expected over the northern seaboards of Northern Luzon due to the surge of the amihan. Sea travel along these seaboards is risky as wave height could reach up to 4.5 meters.
TODAY IN HISTORY: THE CLAVERIA DECREE
Since 1850, most Filipino families started using new surnames based on the Claveria list.
On November 21, 1849, Governor General Narciso Claveria began the process of creating a civil registry of the entire population by issuing a decree standardizing records of Filipino names and surnames.
He released the Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos or the Alphabetical Catalogue of Surnames, which contained 60,662 Spanish and indigenous surnames.
Before the Spanish occupied the Philippines, most Filipinos had just one name. But when people started to convert to Christianity, most took two or three names and changed them whenever they wanted.
This practice created confusion among the Spanish bureaucrats, making tax collection a nightmare. With the Claveria decree, this task, along with law enforcement and setting up church records, became systemized.
The tail end of a cold front, which is formed when cold air mass dominates over warm air during convergence, will dump rains in Central and Southern Luzon. Metro Manila, Bicol Region, CALABARZON, and the provinces of Aurora, Bulacan, Quirino, Isabela, Mindoro and Palawan will experience cloudy skies with light to moderate rain showers and thunderstorms.
Meanwhile, the northeast monsoon or amihan will prevail over the extreme Northern Luzon. The rest of Cagayan Valley, Cordillera and Ilocos Region will have cloudy skies with light rains. The rest of the country will be partly cloudy to cloudy with isolated rain showers or thunderstorms mostly in the afternoon or evening.
Fishing boats and other small sea craft are still prohibited from sailing over the seaboards of Northern Luzon due to the surge ofamihan. Rough to very rough sea conditions are expected in the seaboards of Batanes, Calayan, Babuyan, Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union and Pangasinan.
According to PAGASA Weather Forecaster Buddy Javier, no weather disturbance is being observed outside the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR). However, all are advised to monitor updates.
PH to celebrate CCC Week 2014
By virtue of Proclamation No.1667, the Climate Change Commission will lead the celebration of CCC or Climate Change Consciousness Week. The event will be held on November 24 to 26 this year under the theme “Plan. Act. Achieve.”
The CCC Week is celebrated annually to raise public awareness on global warming and climate change. It also aims to encourage Filipinos, especially the youth, to participate in eco-friendly activities and to contribute to environmental protection against climate change.
Partly cloudy skies with isolated light rains will be experienced over Cagayan Valley, Cordillera and Ilocos Region as the northeast monsoon continues to prevail over the extreme Northern Luzon. Meanwhile, the easterlies will still affect the eastern section of Southern Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Metro Manila and the rest of the country can look forward to a generally fair weather with possible isolated rain showers or thunderstorms.
The northeast monsoon, locally known as amihan, is characterized by cold and dry air coming from Mainland China. The gradual intensification of this wind system results to colder early mornings. On the other hand, the easterlies, coming from the Pacific Ocean, brings warm and humid weather, mostly over the eastern side of the country.
PAGASA issued a gale warning, which covers the seaboards of Northern Luzon. Due to the rough to very rough sea conditions, fishing boats and other small seacraft are advised not to venture out into the seaboards of Batanes, Calayan, Babuyan, Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union and Pangasinan.
To guide us on our daily activities, the weather bureau provides the range of temperatures expected in key cities in the Philippines.
PAGASA Weather Forecaster Jun Galang explained that they forecast these temperatures by using the CLIPER (Climatology and Persistence) method and actual data. Based on the observed high and low temperatures of a certain city, CLIPER allows forecasters to chart its expected highest and lowest temperatures the next day.
For today’s temperature, Metro Manila will have 23-32°C. A temperature range of 25-32°C will be experienced in Metro Cebu while Metro Davao can expect a slightly warmer day with 25-34°C.
The northeast monsoon or amihan, characterized by cold and dry air coming from Mainland China, will affect extreme Northern Luzon while the easterlies will prevail over the eastern section of Southern Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Easterlies are winds coming from the Pacific Ocean, which bring warm and humid weather.
Partly cloudy skies with isolated light rains are expected over Cagayan Valley, Cordillera and the Ilocos Region. Meanwhile, Metro Manila and the rest of the country will have partly cloudy to cloudy skies with isolated rain showers or thunderstorms, mostly in the eastern section.
Based on the records of the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), the following areas felt the lowest temperatures this morning:
Compared to yesterday, temperatures today are much lower as the amihan blows over Luzon.
What to expect on the 2nd half of November
PAGASA Weather Forecaster Alvin Pura said the amihan is expected to intensify in the following days, bringing chillier early mornings. Pura added that longer nights are expected as the Winter Solstice approaches the Northern Hemisphere. Winter Solstice marks the longest night of the year, either on December 21 or 22. Longer nights mean shorter exposure to sun rays, contributing to the colder weather during “ber” months.
Another thing to keep in mind is the possible formation of weather disturbances. Pura explained that tropical cyclones during this season have a higher chance of hitting the landmass or making their landfall.
Meanwhile, experts continue to monitor the possible impact of an El Niño Phenomenon in the last quarter of 2014. El Niño is characterized by the unusual warming of the sea surface temperature. According to the latest information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the probability of an El Niño Phenomenon at this time has been lowered to 58% from 65%.
PAGASA clarified that we are still in the neutral condition so if El Niño occurs this year, it will be weak. The next update will be released on December 4, 2014.